• Soil texture
    crop soil texture
    medium to heavy soils
  • Min. temperature
    crop temperature icon
    3-5 °C
  • pH
    Oat crop pH value
    5.5 -7
  • Water demand
    Oat crop rainfall value
    > 400l/m2, good distribution important
  • Vernalisation
    Oat crop vernalisation
  • Plant density
    crop density
    300-350 seeds/m2
  • Seeding Depth
    crop seeding depth
Due to the risk of frost damage, summer varieties are the most commonly planted in Central and Eastern Europe. Winter oats have a higher yield potential and are therefore more frequently planted in Western Europe (France and England).

The well-developed root system facilitates an efficient uptake of nutrients and water, but oats require an adequate water supply for high yields. Therefore, oats grow better in moist and cool environments than in hot and dry ones. Oat is not very demanding when it comes to soil structure, as long as it is not compacted or waterlogged.
Key facts
  • Adjust nitrogen supply to demand in order to avoid lodging.

  • Oats have a strong root system.

  • Beware of copper and manganese deficiencies.

  • Oats are a good preceding crop to other cereal crops.

General Information
General Information
Nutrient demand
Nutrient demand

Like rye, oat is often planted as the last crop in crop rotations. However, it is also a good preceding crop to wheat thanks to its ability to reduce the prevalence of certain plant diseases.  

Due to the risk posed by nematodes, oats should be grown when there has been a break of at least four years between sowing. Further, no barley should be grown during this break either.  

Seeds should be sown as early as possible. This facilitates good use of the winter moisture and good tillering.

It is seldom necessary to apply fungicides. Growth regulators reduce the risk of lodging at very high yield expectations. 

Oat straw is easily digestible and used as fodder. Therefore, the straw is often removed from the fields. 

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Although oats have an efficient root system, an adequate supply of nutrients is necessary to obtain high yields. Liming is usually done in the field before preceding crops are sown, but not necessarily before oats as they can tolerate  slightly acidic soils.
Demand and extraction quantities of oat



(Unit/t of production)


(Unit/t of production)

Sensitivity to deficiency
















Moderately Sensitive




Moderately Sensitive


Cu and Mn sensitivity

The table shows uptake and removal per tonne of oats grain yield. Y yield of five tonnes removes 55kg P2O and 115kg K2O per hectare, if straw is removed. In order to provide 110kg N/ha a nitrogen, it is necessary to fertilize 50 to 80kg/ha, depending on the soil properties.
Autumn fertilization

When growing winter oats, basal fertilization in autumn can be beneficial and can provide the nutrients required. An appropriate supply of potassium increases winter hardiness. 

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First N-fertilisation at the beginning of growth

First N-fertilisation at the beginning of growth image

Second N fertilization

Second N fertilization image

First N-fertilisation at the beginning of growth

The first N-supply facilitates rapid vegetation cover and thus a better use of the winter moisture. Due to the short growth period, the first N fertilization is carried out 5 to 14 days after sowing and should be applied in combination with phosphate, potassium and sulphur (COMPLEX NPK+S). 

Second N fertilization

The second application is carried at the beginning of bolting. Splitting the N fertilization is recommended if the total N amount exceeds 60kg/ha. If fertilization is split the first application should be 60 to 70% of the total N amount.