• Texture du sol
    crop soil texture
    Light to medium heavy soils, no waterlogging
  • Température minimum
    crop temperature icon
    Rieslings can survive temperatures down to -20°C
  • pH
    Vignes crop pH value
    Optimal: 5.5-6.5
  • Pluie
    Vignes crop rainfall value
    Min. 300-400 l/m2
  • Vernalisation
    Vignes crop vernalisation
  • Densité de la culture
    crop density
    Depending on the form, variety, water supply and technology Distance between the rows: 1.8-2.5m Distance in the row: 1.0-1.2m
  • Profondeur de semis
    crop seeding depth
All famous winegrowing regions of the world derive their identity from one or only a few, very specific grape varieties. For example, the Pinot in Burgundy, the Nebbiolo grape in Barolo, the Riesling in Rheingau or the Silvaner in Franconia. Viticulture, viniculture or winegrowing refer to the cultivation of vines for the purpose of harvesting grapes in order to produce wine. The wine is made in a cellar. The science of the wine industry is called oenology.
Facteurs clés
  • Labour intensive
  • Differences in fertilization between juvenile plants and yield plants
  • Optimal pH 5.5-6.0
  • Chloride-sensitive
Informations générales
Informations générales
Besoin nutrionnel
Besoin nutrionnel
Viticulture is one of the most labour-intensive crops, especially on steep slopes. The work begins in January to March, with grapevine pruning. This old wood from the previous year is removed and the fruit rods in the vine plants are determined. The number and length of the fruit rods have a decisive influence on the yield and also on the quality of the wine. The grapevine pruning is still carried out by hand today. From February to April repair work on the wire frame takes place. From March/April, the cut-back vines are bent over wires and tied to them, thus achieving a uniform distribution and stable shape of the shoots. By August, side shoots are removed and the tall vines are attached to the wire frame (this step is called "stapling"). There are also works such as leaf trimming, cutting and thinning. From April, the soil is loosened mechanically; In addition, cover crops are sown. Both serve to stimulate natural soil life. Missing nutrients are supplied in the form of fertilizer. From around the beginning of May (budding of the grapevines) to August, protective measures against pests and fungal diseases are carried out. Fungicides are frequently used 4-7 times. The start of the harvest depends in particular on the grape variety, the location and the degree of ripeness of the grapes. Mostly the grape harvest starts in the middle/end of September and can last until the middle/end of November. The grape harvest is traditionally done by harvest workers by hand, or more often by machine, with harvesters. The soil, heavily compacted by the grape harvest, is loosened up by ploughing.
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Fertilization of a permanent crop in growth and in yield
The fertilization of a permanent crop, such as grape, differs significantly from a classical field crop. On the one hand it takes years until the stock is built up and produces a yield. In that way organic matter is formed, which certainly remains on the field, but is not available for mineralisation on the surface. Especially in steep slopes, cover crops are planted for erosion protection and better trafficability of the tramlines. In addition, it also positively influences the humus content and soil life, which is important for nutrient supply. The composition of plant species in this green strip plays an essential role. Incorrect application can lead to a strong competition for water and nutrients. In terms of quantity, the fertilizer quantities are based on the quantities extracted.
Extraction quantities for grape



(unité/t de récolte)


(unité/t de récolte)

Sensibilité à la carence
















Modérément sensible


Boron (B), iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) as foliar fertilization

The table shows uptake and removal per hectolitre (hl) of grape yield. According to this, grape needs mainly nitrogen and potash. Example: A grape yield of 70hl/ha takes up 98kg N/ha. If a certain amount of N replenishment is absorbed from the soil (for example 70kg N/ha), then 28kg N/ha would need to be added by means of fertilizer. From the harvest yields, 42kg N/ha would be removedfrom the field.
Nitrogen fertilization Nitrogen (N) occupies a central position in the metabolism of the vine. Nitrogen in viticulture has a great influence on growth, fruit setting and yield. The largest amount is tightly bound in the organic matter. Of the bound nitrogen, only about 1% is released annually by the action of soil microorganisms. This can result in a subsequent delivery of approx. 50-150kg N/ha/year. The intensity of the mineralisation of nitrogen is not optimally adapted to the seasonal needs of the vine. A shallow soil loosening early to mid-May can promote nitrogen release and result in its availability in time for increased needs of the vine. Nitrogen fertilization in juvenile plants In the year of planting and also in the following years, water supply is of crucial importance for the growth of the vine. At good soil conditions, none or only a small amount of nitrogen fertilization is required in the first years of development. The cover crops must be supplied with nitrogen, especially under unfavourable soil conditions, in order to prevent competition with the vines. The quantities vary depending on the soil conditions in the range of 0-30 kg N/ha/year. A possible nutrient supplementation in the planting year is foliar fertilization in the juvenile plant, which has a favourable effect, especially in periods of drought. Nitrogen fertilization in yield plants Nitrogen is an important nutrient for grapevine development. However, location and weather also have a significant influence on the photosynthesis performance and thus on quality and yield. In yielding plants, the nitrogen requirement depends on the organic matter in the soil, the yield performance, the variety and the tillage and water supply. A means of measuring nitrogen demand is the speed of growth. Phosphorus and potassium In contrast to nitrogen fertilization, that of phosphorus and potassium is not time-bound. A basic fertilization in autumn before tillage is useful. In juvenile plants with sufficient nutrient supply, no fertilization measures are necessary, since the uptaken quantities are small. If there is a pronounced lack of phosphorus, targeted fertilization of the subsoil can be carried out based on the plant extraction. If, despite potassium fertilization, symptoms of deficiency appear, a potassium fixation should be assumed. This can also be determined using a soil sample. Since vines only partially tolerate chloride, chloride-free fertilizers should be used or at least fertilizers containing chlorides should be used only in autumn. Juvenile plants and rootstocks must be fertilized without chloride. A liming is recommended if the need has been proven by a soil examination. Boron deficiency occurs especially in dry years on sandy and clayey soils. Grape vines need boron, a foliar fertilization is preferable to soil fertilization. Iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) Iron is actively taken up as Fe++, Fe+++ and as Fe chelate via the root. It is important for chlorophyll formation and the growth process. The mobility of iron in the plant is low. Its availability in the soil is often inhibited by bicarbonate enrichment. Symptoms of iron deficiency are foliar yellowing (chlorosis) and a lack of shoot development. The deficiency is more pronounced on dense clay-rich soils or on calcareous sites; however, an oversupply of phosphate or copper can also increase the symptoms. Manganese is actively taken up via the root as Mn2+ ion or as Mn chelate and is important for the activation of a range of enzymes. The mobility of manganese in the plant is moderate. There is also an antagonistic interaction between manganese and iron. Excess manganese predominates on acidic soils and waterlogged soils under anaerobic conditions.
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One application in spring

One application in spring image

One application in spring

Both the fertilization of the juvenile plants and the fertilization of the yield plants will be carried out in the spring in one fertilizer application of a chloride-free / low-chloride, potassium-emphasized multi-nutrient fertilizer. The amount to be fertilized is based on nitrogen extraction and is approx. 30kg N/ha in juvenile plants and 40-50kg N/ha in yield plants. At phosphate deficient locations, to remedy the deficiency, targeted fertilization of the subsoil may be carried out. The appropriate amount of fertilizer must be incorporated in this regard. It is not allowed to add up the quantities of fertilizer needed both for the topsoil and the subsoil and apply them together in one application.